First written in Urdu, Bang-i Dara (Caravan Bell) was translated into Urdu by popular demand. An anthology of poems written over a period of 20 years, is divided into 3 parts: 1. Poems written up to 1905, the year Iqbal left for England. These include nursery, pastoral and patriotic verses. Taranayi Hindi (The Song of India) has become an anthem and is sung in India on Independence Day. 2. Poems written between 1905 and 1908, the period he spent as a student in Europe. He praises the rationality and pragmatism of the West, but complains about its overt materialism, loss of spirituality and narrow patriotism, which promises suffering. (The first world war proved him right.) This situation strengthened his belief in the universal values of Islam and he resolved to use his poetry to stir Muslims to their renaissance. 3. Poems written between 1908 and 1923, in which Iqbal reminds Muslims of their past greatness and calls for the brotherhood and unity that transcend territorial boundaries.
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